Collision investigators are appealing for witnesses after the crash happened at the junction of Horseley Heath and Lower Church Lane on Friday evening.
The 26-year-old motorcyclist, who has not been named by police, was rushed to hospital in a critical condition but died on Saturday.
West Midlands Police said he had failed to stop for police before colliding with the taxi at around 9.40pm.
Whether the bike rider was being chased by police at the time of impact is not yet clear, however the incident has been referred to the Independent Office for Police Conduct as is standard practice when somebody dies or is seriously injured after coming into contact with the police.
The road was closed for a number of hours on Friday night while emergency services and collision reconstruction experts established the circumstances of the collision.
A nearby shopkeeper, who asked to remain anonymous, said: "We just heard that somebody passed through the red light outside, a taxi was coming from another direction they hit each other.
"We've had a lot of people coming in talking about it and asking what happened."
Another man added: "I didn't see what happened but I heard it happen. There was a lot of police outside."
A man in his 30s was also taken to hospital with minor injuries.
Sergeant Alan Hands from West Midlands Police's Collision Investigation Unit said: “We are appealing for anyone who was in the area at the time who might have seen the collision to get in touch."
Anyone who witnessed the incident is asked to call 101 quoting log 2557 24/3.